Tuesday, June 30, 2015

Notes on the European Games in Baku

1. "Imagine there's no countries"
The inaugural European Games have been held in Baku, Azerbaijan.  The opening ceremony, held on June 12th, saw Lady Gaga cover John Lennon's Imagine - with no sense of irony at all - in the 68,700 seater Olympic Stadium. Over the course of 17 days some 5898 athletes, representing 50 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) from across the continent, competed in 20 sports. By the end, the UK stood third in the medal table, behind Russia and the hosts. Scant attention was paid to the Games in the British press or on television.

2. "We were not convinced about the quality of some of the individual events"
Despite a sizeable Team GB contingent, including Nicola Adams, Ed McKeever and Gemma Gibbons, there were certainly strictly sporting reasons why the European Games merited so little attention in the UK. The program consisted of a range of minority sports such as Beach Soccer, Sambo and Shooting. Without the allure of the Olympics' history, prestige or brand recognition, the European Games singularly failed to capture the imagination. The two sports that traditionally prove to be the largest draw during the Olympics proper - swimming and athletics - were listed respectively as junior and third-tier events in Baku. 

The Games were shown live on BT Sport in the UK, seemingly the result of other broadcasters reluctance to commit capital to an unknown quantity. Neil Sloane, director of sport at ITV said purchasing the rights to the European Games "didn't make any financial sense". Meanwhile Barbara Slater, head of sport at the BBC, said "We were not convinced about the quality of some of the individual events and we have a finite resource. We invest in the European athletics championships, the European basketball championships, the European swimming championships...so we were going to take away from some of our existing relationships to invest in that."

3. “Tell the world about our problems and you will be punished”
The coverage that the European Games did receive, however, invariably had little to do with the sporting contests on offer, focusing instead on the country's political situation. A number of human rights organisations repeatedly drew attention to the repressive nature of President Ilham Aliyev’s government. For instance, Human Rights Watch records that:
“The Azerbaijani government escalated repression against its critics, marking a dramatic deterioration in its already poor rights record. The authorities convicted or imprisoned at least 33 human rights defenders, political and civil activists, journalists, and bloggers on politically motivated charges, prompting others to flee the country or go into hiding.”
Staging the 2015 European Games merely served to exacerbate the draconian policies of Aliyev, as the Azerbaijani government sought to silence critical and dissenting voices. Those domestic journalists who asked awkward questions, such as Idrak Abbasov, have been “beaten, bruised and, eventually, exiled”. Prior to the Games, representatives from such organisations as Amnesty International, the Guardian, Radio France International and German broadcaster ARD were all barred from entering Azerbaijan. For Amnesty International’s Denis Krivosheev, the government were issuing a statement of intent: “The message is: ‘Tell the world about our problems and you will be punished’”.

4. “The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the entire surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connexions everywhere.”
When announcing the Games back in 2012 the European Olympic Committee (EOC) promised they would be “a tool with which to enhance the attractiveness of sport”. A cursory glance at the political furore surrounding the Baku Games would call that into question. Indeed, given its limited appeal to fans and broadcasters, and the already packed sporting calendar, it seems a little odd that the representatives of Europe’s various NOCs should institute a European Games at all. Certainly there was opposition from other quarters, including Denis Oswald, president of the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF), who highlighted the pressures on competitors: "Our first concern is for the athletes. In Europe there are so many competitions. We should not push the athletes to do any more,"

Reading between the lines one can possibly detect the faintest reluctance on the part of NOCs in committing to a project the EOC declared had been in the “Olympic air” for some time. While a majority voted in favour of the proposal it was accompanied by a guarantee that “that the event will not cost them a penny, but bring them financial gains.” This reached its logical, if unusual, conclusion before the opening of the Baku Games when it was announced that the Azerbaijani organisers would cover all travel and accommodation costs incurred by those athletes in attendance.

The idea of a European Games had been floated initially in 2009 by the Irish International Olympic Committee (IOC) member and EOC president, Patrick Hickey. Subsequently Deloitte were commissioned to produce a ‘feasibility study’ into any potential Games – although the supposedly public document is infuriatingly impossible to track down. No doubt it spoke in glowing terms about the benefits to European sport a regional event would bring, the increased cooperation between the representatives of various nation states, and the positive effect more sport would have on an increasingly unhealthy and obese Europe.

An educated guess would suggest that beneath this window dressing the report concluded a European Games would be an enormously profitable venture for the EOC and its constituent NOCs. Revenue from advertising and TV deals is a lucrative business, as anyone involved in Olympianism is only too well aware. As Baku approached so exclusive broadcast deals were signed with media groups across the continent, as well as China Central Television and the Arab States Broadcasting Union.

Capitalism and the Olympic Movement, both of which were born in Europe before spreading across the globe, have returned in tandem to create a new product in an old market.

5. “Fanatical Colonialist”
Regional Games, that is to say those mini-Olympic style events which encompass a continent or other geographical area, are nothing new. Until Baku, Europe was the only continent not to stage such a competition, although, for various political reasons, similar ideas had been mooted on a number of occasions throughout the 1960s.

This is a curious historical anomaly, almost certainly the result of the early Olympic Movement’s Eurocentrism. The Olympic Games were ‘renovated’ by the French aristocrat Baron Pierre de Coubertin in 1896. By the 1920s Coubertin and the International Olympic Committee – a veritable who’s who of European nobility – explored the idea of regional Games held under the auspices of the IOC. Over the course of the next 15 years Central American, Pan-American, Near East and Balkan Games were held. An African Games, scheduled for 1925, failed to get off the ground.

Contained within Coubertin’s Olympic ideology is a most definite imitation of the logic of imperialism, indeed Coubertin had at one point described himself as a “fanatical colonialist”. Having embarked upon his ‘civilizing mission’ with racist zeal, Coubertin proselytized on a global stage, espousing the moral value of his sporting systems.

Unlike other continents, Europe had no need for a Games; they were already in possession of the Olympics themselves.

6. “we all are soldiers of Azerbaijan and ready to serve at full strength for the future of our country”
I have written before about Robert K Barney and the ‘p’ triad: the promise of pride, publicity and profit that underpins a government’s desire to host a mega-event. While it is almost always the case that staging a mega-event results in a net loss for the host nation, it seems that Azerbaijan had approached the European Games knowing that there would be a negative financial return. They seemed content to use the Games as advert and loss-leader, in the hope that the outlay would be offset by a presumed increase in prestige on the national stage, as is clear from the words of Tale Haydarov, chair of the European Azerbaijan Society:
"“The fact that the first European Games were granted to Azerbaijan proves that the country is worthy to host them. During the past decade, the economic level and infrastructure of my country has developed considerably. We are now reaping the fruits of these developments."
The event also promised a spike in national pride, and Ilham Aliyev was quick to turn this feeling into political capital. At the end of the Games he waxed lyrical about the nation’s potential before thanking his wife Mehriban Aliveva, who had headed the organising committee:She did her utmost to hold the European Games at the highest level. While determining the composition of the Organizing Committee, I was sure that they would do the best. Because it covered experience and professionalism, mainly love to the state and people. In general, these are main terms of the success of our country,”

In turn, Mehriban Aliyeva took aim at the government’s political opponents – both domestic and international, one presumes – before engaging in the sort of military metaphor that would have had George Orwell reaching for his pen: “You have proved to the whole world once again that no black power can target or fear us… Mr. President, we all are soldiers of Azerbaijan and ready to serve at full strength for the future of our country.”

For Aliyev and Azerbaijan the Games came at a price. Officially Baku 2015 is said to have cost €1 billion, but the final figure may be as high as €6.5 billion once stadium construction and infrastructure improvements are factored in. And while the eyes of the world may be drawn by hosting an event of such a scale, they may not all look on approvingly.

7. "It would be irresponsible to pull together €57.5 million for the European Games in 2019,"
The European Games are set to become a quadrennial event, and are due to be staged next in 2019. Yet even before a starter’s gun had fired in Baku the future of the Games was sent into chaos. It had been announced in May that the Netherlands would host the second European Games but less than a month later they had withdrawn their interest.

Unsurprisingly money is behind the change of heart. The 2019 European Games came with a projected €125 million price-tag and the Dutch government were unwilling to meet the request of the organisers to fund nearly half of that sum through public money. "It would be irresponsible to pull together €57.5 million (£41.9 million/$61.5 million) for the European Games in 2019," a joint statement from the Government, the Provinces and Municipalities said. Despite the fact that the Netherlands were the only country to bid for the Games, the EOC is adamant that as many as seven nations are now prepared to host the event.

8. “Many of the requirements of the IOC do not harmonize with the Norwegian way of thinking and living”
If spiralling costs, uncertain economic terrain and the reluctance to divert resources in an age of austerity are concerns affecting what we might rather loosely term ‘mini-mega events’ such as the European Games, they are but a microcosm of the difficulties facing actual mega-events.

This can be most clearly seen with the bidding process for the 2022 Winter Olympics. Of the six original countries touted as contenders Lviv in Ukraine, Krakow in Poland and Stockholm in Sweden all pulled out, while a lack of popular support prevented bids from Germany and Switzerland. Once the IOC’s preferred choice, Olso, also dropped out because the Norwegian government were unwilling to bankroll the Games, only bids from China and Kazakhstan remained. Neither country can be said to have a spotless human rights record.

9. “If participation in sport is to be stopped every time the politicians violate the laws of humanity, there will never be any international contests.”
The government of Azerbaijan deserves criticism. But it is not alone. There are numerous examples of nation states with dubious human rights records hosting mega-events. The government of Brazil was rightly condemned before and during the last football World Cup; Israel was awarded the European Under-23 football championships despite their continued persecution and brutalisation of the Palestinians; the Sochi Winter Games took place against the horrific repression of Russia’s LGBTQ community. And Tony Blair was Prime Minister at the time the 2012 Olympics were awarded to London when he should have been in the International Criminal Court charged with war crimes. Perhaps Avery Brundage had a point when he said:
“The world, alas, is full of injustice, aggression, violence and warfare, against which all civilized persons rebel, but this is no reason to destroy the nucleus of international cooperation and good will we have in the Olympic Movement … If participation in sport is to be stopped every time the politicians violate the laws of humanity, there will never be any international contests.”
Yet Brundage’s words are an exercise in the abdication of responsibility, a justification for turning a blind-eye to that “injustice, aggression, violence and warfare”. Surely we cannot agree with Brundage, nor the Baku Games’ chief operating officer Simon Clegg when he says, “political questions need to be directed to the politicians”. No matter the lengths to which people go in order to deny the link between politics and sport, the two are irrevocably intertwined. Sport is shot through with considerations of class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, power and money, our participation is structured by political decisions, mega-events can only exist because of the planning, preparation and financial input of those who govern host countries. The likes of the IOC and FIFA are political actors.

It is baffling that governing bodies, operating at a time when mega-events are as much a brand as an event, still refuse to see the relationship between sport and politics. While politicians, governments, and nation states seek to bask in the reflected glory of a mega-event, it is equally true that the actions of a nation state can 
leave a stain on the mega-event itself.

10. “Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort, the educational value of good example, social responsibility and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles.”
The Olympic Charter proclaims that the Olympics should be realised “without discrimination of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” History would suggest that this credo can be extremely malleable. How do those who govern world sport square that circle?

There is a belief amongst these people that sport, or more specifically sport in their hands, is an unequivocal force for good in this world, a mechanism for peace and understanding. Sport can, indeed must, absent itself from the moral questions of society, suspended in pure isolation, lest it too becomes debased. Fundamentally, sport is considered to transcend the political realm. Some will say that the ideology of Olympianism is merely a sham, a fig leaf to cover the lies and profiteering and corruption. I would not disagree. But those in power do seem, on some level, to truly believe their own rhetoric.

In part this is the corollary of the colonial ideology that so informed Coubertin in the first decades of the twentieth century. It has become the duty of the IOC or FIFA to reach out to countries such as Azerbaijan or Qatar, to welcome them into the Olympic Movement and the Football Family. In doing so they believe, quite genuinely, that they are helping to educate and elevate, inspire and instruct, and perhaps most arrogantly of all, that they are the solution rather than part of the problem.

Monday, June 29, 2015

Here Comes the Summer of Sport

Mark Perryman reviews the best of this Summer’s Sports Books

English football’s Premiership (sic), the best league in the world? The same 4 clubs, well give or take one perhaps, could be jotted down on a scrap of paper every August with a cast-iron guarantee they will fill the Champions League places, year in, year out. Tedium, its the brand value the Premiership has become past masters at providing, yet barely a word of dissent ever breaks through the breathless excitement football’s boosterists provide across the print, TV and radio media.

Meantime despite the sportification of society levels of participation in scarcely any form of physical activity continue to rocket downwards. Football, the richest and most high profile of all sports has amongst the sharpest rates of decline in numbers taking part, unless of course we count watching it from the comfort of our own sofa.

Cutting through sport-hype takes a combination of a love for and understanding of sport with a critique of all that it threatens to become. Jules Boykoff is a renowned expert at precisely this kind of combination, his latest book Activism and the Olympics provides a chronicle of activist opposition to the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics and London 2012.  Andrew Zimbalist does something similar over a longer timeframe, and taking in both the Olympics and Football World Cups. His conclusions in his book Circus Maximus are devastating, the socio-economic benefits of hosting are next to negligible and more often than not actually negative.  Yet despite almost every pledge made by London 2012 remaining unfulfilled as Rio 2016 approaches the self-satisfied bandwagon that the Olympics has turned into will steamroll almost all critical voices into the margins. Perhaps what is needed to resist is the kind of ideological rigour that features amongst those profiled in the pioneering collection Sport and Revolutionaries edited by John Nauright and David Wiggins. Lenin and Che Guevara,   who would have imagined the centrality they both gave sport and physical culture in the cause of human liberation? Or likewise social movements spanning Irish Republicanism, the overthrow of colonial regimes, anti-racism and civil rights. Each in their own ways , as essays in this excellent book recount, saw the importance of sport towards their ends.  Two pleas though to an otherwise excellent publisher, Routledge. Why only the high-priced hardback edition limiting the sale to libraries? And why the standard, one-design-fits-all cover? Both factors will seriously reduce the potential popular impact of what is an important book.

Getting to grips with the enduring absence of a social, economic, political and cultural dimension of too much mainstream sportswriting is vital to any kind of appreciation of how sport is consumed. If is only via this kind of project that recreation and leisure will become framed by the contribution it makes towards human liberation rather than  simply consumed as a big screen extravaganza. Roger Domenghetti’s superlative From the Back Page to the Front Room provides an unrivaled account of the evolution of football’s monopoly of the sports media, with interviews and insights that are both informative and compelling. Jamie Cleland provides something similar, if more wide-ranging, in A Sociology of Football in a Global Context. This is a textbook study of the new football, ranging over almost every subject the serious student of the game might want to consider.  Same publishers as  Sport and Revolutionaries  so same two pleas apply!  Hugo Borst’s O, Louis is a supreme example of how sportswriting can capture the cultural and the social at its best without any negative impact on its ability to reach and engage with a mass audience. Van Gaal, despite his modest first season at Man Utd, remains set to be one of the great characters of English football for some time to come. His foreignness, his Dutchness, every bit as intriguing as Wenger and Mourinho’s otherness, if not yet framed by the same degree of success.

A Matter of Life and Death by Jim White is an alternative history of football told via 100 quotations' from ‘There is Great Noise in the City’ describing 1314 street football to World Cup 2014. Jim White is a great sportswriter, he has chosen his quotes carefully while providing his own informative yet idiosyncratic narrative. Brilliant!  But words alone, however well-written, can never entirely capture the appeal of football. Edited by Reuel Golden Age of Innocence is a combination of the very best world photography of football in the 1970s with a skilfully written set of introductory commentaries about the decade. Age of Innocence? This is domestic football both before the Premiership but also prior to the Bradford Fire, Heysel and Hillsborough too. Three very different events but each in their own way defining football in the 1980s. A book of global reach too, the world of football depicted as much less of a corporate enterprise than it is now.

But how to push at the boundaries of the limited meaning that modern corporatised football has become? Firstly breakdown its gendering. A process that has accelerated in the twenty-first century, from lets say the near non-existent to the painfully slow. Events recorded very well in the new book by Carrie Dunn and Joanna Welford, Football and the FA Women’s Super League (sadly though another academic publisher with a standard boring cover and high priced library edition hardback only, why?)  Second, confront and expose the corruption in the administration of the global game. Heidi Blake and Jonathan Calvert’s The Ugly Game investigates in breathtaking detail the sheer magnitude of the corruption at the highest levels of FIFA. Third, provide practical examples of what an alternative might look like. Rather confusingly also titled The Ugly Game Martin Calladine’s book is a very welcome pioneering effort to do just that. Fourth, dump the ridiculous rhetoric embraced by fans as well as the corporate brand managers, that the Premiership is ‘the best league in the world’. It’s the richest yes, but in almost every other regard it is inferior to several others, most notably the German Bundesliga. Read Ronald Reng’s very good Matchdays to find out how German football gets by without foreign owners, clubs 51% owned by their fans, mainly German players on the pitch, drinking and standing on the terraces. Didn’t that use to be ‘the English way’ when Liverpool, Notts Forest and Villa won European Cups and an England side could make to it to a World Cup semi-final. All pre-Premiership no thankyou very much.

Few football books manage to provide the breadth and dept of insight with the very obvious passion for the game that Mark Doidge combines in writing Football Italia. From the country of Gramsci, Mussolini, post-war Eurocommunism, Berlusconi and more it is no surprise that Italian football also is a game of extremes. What Mark Doidge manages, definitively, to explain is how a nation’s football can never be divorced from how a national culture has been shaped too, all with a neat line in understanding why sometimes despite that process Italian football retains a fateful appeal for fans the world over.

It is only in English football’s ever-shortening summertime off-season that much of any other sport gets any kind of look in. And even that is reduced in a year of a World Cup or a Euro. For a fortnight or so the media will go overboard for the tennis at Wimbledon. Such coverage aided when the rivalry that singles tennis generates reaches out beyond the strawberries and Pimms brigade. Peter Bodo’s account, Ashe vs Connors  records just such a moment from the faraway summer of 1975. This is sports writing as social history against the backdrop of towering personalities and supreme talent, all the makings of a really good sports book.

An Ashes Summer used to more or less guarantee a mass audience for cricket. But since the appallingly short-sighted decision of cricket’s governing body to dump free-to-air live TV coverage interest has plummeted and  is unlikely ever to recover, despite what looks like a fast-improving England team. In his newly published autobiography Curtly Ambrose  provides a compelling picture of the heights of popularity Test cricket once enjoyed. A thrilling West Indies team becoming a symbol of resistance, diaspora and nationhood. This was international sport at its very best, fiercely competitive, individuals combining for the common purpose of the team, imagined communities acquiring some semblance of the real. Will we see the like of it on a cricket pitch again? Possibly not. Rob Smyth like Jim White uses 100 quotations to track a sport’s history. This time, The Ashes in Gentlemen and Sledgers . Rob depicts the changes from the pre-TV era, the broadening popularity of cricket via television and radio coverage, England’s return to glory in recent years and then the catastrophic decline on the pitch accompanied by the loss of terrestrial TV coverage. Despite all this the 5-day 5-test Ashes series remained throughout one of the most epic contests in the world of sport and Rob’s book helps us to appreciate the reasons why.

It is only in recent years that Le Tour has featured very much at all as part of the Great British sporting summer. In the era that William Fotheringham described in his classic biography of Italian cycling great Fausto Coppi  Fallen Angel the 1940s and 1950s cycling up mountains was something best left to continental types. And the domestic popularity of cycling hadn’t changed so very much by the time of his latest biography, the greatest French cyclist Bernard Hinault  in the late 1970s and early 1980s.  But it is by reading William’s books the latter-day domestic popularity of this most extraordinary drama of human endurance can begin to be accounted for. Alpe D’Huez  by Peter Cossins accounts for the kind of physical achievement Grand Tour cycling represents via the challenge of just one epic mountain these cyclists are expected to climb on their two wheels. The greatest climb? Quite possibly, though the greatness perhaps lies in the realisation that for these cyclists once they have done one day’s climbing another follows, and another, with next to no respite. It is a sport that borders on the inhuman, the biggest single reason for the scourge of performance enhancing drugs that for a while threatened to engulf cycling. Yet with dedication these climbs, or something like them, can be done. This is the dream of the sporting everyman, or increasingly everywoman too. Ian McGregor’s To Hell on a Bike rather brilliantly tells just such a tale, an ordinary cyclist who trains himself to tackle Paris-Roubaix, widely regarded as the toughest of all the one-day classic cycle races.

Two Days in Yorkshire by Peter Cossins and Andrew Enton superbly captures with stunning photography and great prose the sheer magnitude of what Le Tour starting in Yorkshire in 2014 came to represent. An unforgettable experience and one that deserves to be remembered as far more important than London 2012 in terms of its possibilities for reshaping English sporting culture. Rick Robson’s beautiful book, De Tour De Yorkshire again combines photos and prose, this time to point towards the kind of legacy Le Tour might yet leave behind. Showcasing Yorkshire as England’s capital  destination for cyclists, to race or for pleasure and all points in-between.

The thrill of physical activity, recreational or competitive, for many is not only to maintain a decent level of fitness but to test what our bodies might be capable of. Natural Born Heroes by Christopher McDougall gives the active reader something to aim towards, an approach to ultra-fitness that is almost philosophical in its gritty determination to inspire ever greater achievements of endurance. This is thriller-writing for fitness junkies. Adharanand Finn achieves something similar in his new book The Way of the Runner a gripping account of the place of marathon running in Japanese sporting culture. If all these sounds a bit macho read Lucy Fry’s Run, Ride, Sink or Swim, more than enough to reassure that both sexes are almost equally susceptible to the kind of physical obsession that can drive some in search of the very limits of our body’s potential.

Our sports book of the quarter? Opportunities to play sport, any sport at any level  are inevitably socially constructed. The failure to understand this both narrows the scope of most mainstream sportswriting and at the same time ensures most writers on politics to wilfully ignore sport.  Gabriel Kuhn is an author who would never make either of these cardinal errors. His Playing As If The World Mattered is an illustrated history of sport as activism. Refusing to treat one as the opposite of the other Gabriel weaves together stories and episodes, some familiar, many not, to portray sport as a vital space for and method of human liberation. The writing is effortlessly informative and inspiring while the full colour illustrations do a similar job visually. Together this is a truly great book to savour for a better future as well as to read now to help improve the present, on or off the pitch, track , inside and outside the ring or pool,wherever your sporting fancy takes you.

Note No links in this review are to Amazon, if you can avoid the offshore tax-dodgers, please do so.

Mark Perryman is the co-founder of the self-styled 'sporting outfitters of intellectual distinction'  aka Philosophy Football

Thursday, June 25, 2015

Liberté, Égalité, Vélocité

Mark Perryman makes the case for a two-wheeled revolution

Le Tour is now as much a fixture of the Great British Sporting Summer as Wimbledon, strawberries and cream, a flutter on the Derby, England’s bi-annual early exit from a Euro or a World Cup and the five-day drama of an Ashes Test, weather permitting.

It wasn’t always thus. Not so long ago cycling up mountains was only something those pesky continentals were daft enough to attempt, domestic interest was less than zero.  Olympic success dating back to Chris Boardman’s track gold at Barcelona ‘92 began to change this but it took another decade and and a bit with the Gold Rush that began at Athens ‘2004  to accelerate the interest. Beijing 2008 and London 2012 firmly established track cycling as amongst Team GB’s number one Olympian sports aided by the mega-personalities of Chris Hoy, Victoria Pendleton, Laura Trott and Paralympian Sarah Storey too.

While the gap between the first visit of Le Tour to Britain was twenty years, 1974 to 1994, the huge popularity of the 2007 British Le Tour stages meant a return visit this time round took place just seven years later in 2014. Mark Cavendish’s success as a sprint finisher helped the growing popularity of Le Tour, topped by his winning of the World Championship road race in 2011, a feat given popular recognition by Mark being voted BBC Sports Personality of the Year too. Wiggomania a year later was of an entirely new level of impact when this supremely gifted sportsman combined becoming the first British winner of Le Tour with Olympic Gold in the Time Trial. These achievements together with Chris Froome’s repeat British winning of the Yellow Jersey in 2013 almost guaranteed the success of the 2014 Le Tour's two days in Yorkshire. But few would have predicted the sheer size, passion and interest of the crowds almost every kilometre of the way.

Elite success, a global sporting event which is as likely to start in Leeds, Sheffield or York as London, and next to no wasteful capital investment either, free to watch, on free-to-air TV too. A sporting occasion that is consumed as a social occasion with eating and drinking thrown in, camping, and cycling the route yourself before and after the pros have raced by. A European sporting culture whose vocabulary and traditions are both embraced by and adapted to British tastes.

But perhaps most importantly a sport we can do as a means to get to work, as a family, for a holiday. Competitive for the most serious, recreational for most of us, no binary opposition required. On road or off, so many different ways to explore our own physical capacity as well as the natural environment, Green, carbon-free, and once the investment in the bike accounted for, relatively cheap too.

Last week the latest figures were published to reveal next to no fulfilment of London 2012's boat to 'inspire a generation'. Participation levels instead of rising are plummeting with those sports most dependent on local authority facilities suffering the worst. Austerity bites, whether its council-run swimming polls, playing pitches or gymnasiums.

Cycling has the potential to buck that trend. But nobody should lose sight of how this sport like all others is socially constructed. Richard Williams wrote a great column contrasting the rising middle-class affection for cycling and the comparable disaffection with golf.
"Instead of dropping a few grand on a country club subscription and a set of Wilson irons and TaylorMade woods, a young investment banker or hedge fund manager is now more likely to spend the cash on a Campagnolo-equipped carbon-fibre frame from Cervélo or Colnago. The couple of hundred quid that once went on a new driver is spent shaving a few grams with a pair of ultra-lightweight aerodynamic bottle cages. "
Much of the sport's rising popularity rests with those who already have the socio-economic access to the time, money and facilities needed to take part.
 
But that shouldn't prevent sport, cycling or any other sport, being part of a progressive vision of human liberation. And that vision should be centred not on the functional purpose of sport, in most cases this will only serve to disappoint. It is a well-worn fiction that most sport will make you lose weight. The more sport you do the more viruses and niggling injuries you are likely to pock up, resistance to the common cold the lowers the fitter you get.  Precious few of us will ever be on the winning side either. Rather the point of sport is it has no point, this is the core of its liberatory potential. For cyclists this lies in the rediscovery of the freedom of childhood. For many the ‘cycle of life’ will have begun with a scooter or balance bike,  perhaps stabilisers, the first discovery of the thrill of brakes and gears but most of all a speed our parents could neither match nor control. Years, decades even, later in adulthood we have our bikes once more and that precious opportunity to revert to type.  The Liberté, Égalité, Vélocité of cycling. Vive La Révolution, on two wheels s'il vous plait.
Philosophy Football's Liberté, Égalité, Vélocité T-shirt is available from here

Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Lindy Delapenha’s One and Only Goal for Pompey

Portsmouth vs Norwich match report,
Portsmouth Evening News, 1950
(click to enlarge)
In 1950 Lindy Delapenha saved Pompey from an ignominious FA Cup defeat at the hands of lowly Norwich, yet his name was barely mentioned in the match reports of the local paper.

Pompey fans must have rubbed their hands with glee when the draw for the third round of the 1949/50 FA Cup was announced. Their team had been drawn against Norwich City in a tie scheduled to be played at Fratton Park on 7th January 1950. At that time Norwich could be found languishing in the relative obscurity of the old Third Division South, two tiers below the Blues. The Canaries would finish in 11th place that season, a mid-table finish that reflected the mediocrity of their performances. Their form in the cup hadn’t been much more impressive. They snatched victory against non-league Gloucester in the first round and were subsequently taken to a replay by Hartlepools United, although the 5-1 score line in the return fixture suggests they were, eventually, good value for their place in the third round.

In comparison, Portsmouth FC were the reigning champions of England and, despite an indifferent start to the campaign, were on course to retain their title. They had enjoyed a reasonably successful run during the Christmas fixtures. The Blues suffered a 2-1 defeat at the hands of Blackpool on Christmas Eve but went on to record back-to-back victories over Charlton Athletic, before drawing at home with Middlesbrough. It is fair to say that they would have approached their FA Cup tie against Norwich with a fair degree of confidence.

An injury to Duggie Reid meant that the young Jamaican forward Lindy Delapenha was presented an opportunity to impress. Delapenha had made only a handful of appearances for Portsmouth since joining the club in April 1948 and his start against Norwich City in the FA Cup tie would mark the one and only time that he played three games on the bounce for the Blues. It would also bring Delapenha’s first and only goal for the club.

The match itself was disappointing fare for the majority of the 42,059 supporters packed into Fratton Park. Pompey had the best of the game yet their intricate passing, whilst pleasing on the eye, resulted in few chances. It is difficult to know if they buckled under the weight of being labelled favourites or victims of over-confidence but Pompey played poorly that day. During a disjointed first half display the Blues had taken the lead when Delapenha poked the ball home during a desperate goalmouth scramble. Whether or not the goal should have stood, however, was hotly contested. Had there been a foul or a handball in the lead up to the goal? Perhaps. Either way it was not enough to kick-start Pompey’s performance and, with half an hour to go, Norwich surprised the home crowd by drawing level. The 1-1 result meant that the two sides would meet in a replay at Carrow Road the following Thursday.

Two days after the game, on Monday 9th January, the match report in the Portsmouth Evening News (pictured above) took Pompey to task. Journalist The Ranger was almost apoplectic with rage at the champion’s performance. He castigated them for “pattern-weaving” which had resulted in nothing but “failure after failure”. Norwich, it was noted, were a “nice Third Division” side but there “was nothing outstanding about them.” Pompey’s goal was mentioned in passing, and only then with the caveat that it “ought not to have been allowed”. That it was scored by Delapenha is omitted entirely, although the injury the Jamaican forward suffered in the second half is recorded as one possible reason for the side’s lack of fluency.

On Wednesday 11th January, as the local paper looked ahead to the following day’s replay, Delapenha again received scant attention. When they finally mentioned him by name it was to speculate that his place in the side would be taken by a fit-again Duggie Reid who, they hoped, would add potency to the Blues’ toothless attack. Reid had a knack of scoring important goals and the paper suggested the Scotsman was “likely to pop in the winner”. As it was Delapenha missed the return fixture having aggravated a long-running hamstring problem in the game at Fratton Park. To add insult to that injury, Reid did indeed return to the first team and scored both goals as Pompey beat Norwich 2-0 to book their place in the FA Cup fourth round. Reid’s first strike appears to have been a miss-hit lob into the box that drifted past a bemused keeper; the second a stonewall penalty after Peter Harris had been scythed down in the box. Highlights of the game, including both Reid goals, can still be seen on the Pathe website.

It must have been somewhat disappointing for Delapenha, whose individual performance perhaps deserved a more positive write-up. His first - and, as it turned out, only - goal for the club should have been cause for celebration but instead his effort was lost amidst the rantings of the journalist sent to cover the match, the legitimacy of his goal doubted, and his place in the team called into question.

Lindy Delapenha would feature only one more time for Portsmouth, his final appearance for the club coming in a 1-0 win away at Fulham. Transferred at the end of the season he would go on to have a hugely successful career at Middlesbrough, notching up nearly 300 games for the club. His impact during his two years at Portsmouth might have been negligible, but it was not quite as anonymous as the match reports would have you believe.

Thursday, June 18, 2015

Lindy Delapenha’s Time at Portsmouth Football Club

There is some confusion as to how many times Lindy Delapenha, Portsmouth Football Club’s first black player, turned out for the Blues.

In a series of articles listing the 20 greatest Jamaican athletes of the twentieth century the Jamaica Gleaner tells us that during his career at Fratton Park “Lindy only played four matches in the first year and all of 24 in his second year with the club.” [i] Alternatively, another source tells us that he played only seven games for Pompey in his two seasons with the club.[ii] Meanwhile, Mike Neasom, one time Sports Editor at The News, in an otherwise meticulously researched book, claims that Delapenha made eight league appearances for Portsmouth and one more in the cup.[iii]

If the details are somewhat shaky these works are at least correct in their chronology, which is more than can be said of Ellis Cashmore’s book Black Sportsmen. “He [Delapenha] played soccer for Middlesbrough,” writes Cashmore, “in the immediate post-war years and, in 1950, moved to Portsmouth where he played professionally until 1958, after which he drifted away from the club never to contact the club again.”[iv]

For the record, Lindy Delapenha played eight first team games for Pompey, seven in the league and one in the cup. And it was in that solitary FA Cup appearance that the Jamaican scored his one and only goal for the club.

Arrival
As I’ve detailed elsewhere, Lindy Delapenha arrived in Portsmouth in April 1948 in somewhat circuitous fashion. He had originally disembarked in the UK in 1946 but, following an unsuccessful trial with Tom Whittaker’s Arsenal, enlisted in the Physical Training Corps and was stationed in Egypt for the next two years. While there Delapenha was spotted by a scout who gave him a letter of recommendation, suggesting he try his luck at either Chelsea or Portsmouth on his return to England. Delapenha explains:
“When I was demobbed in 1948 I had nowhere to live but I had a friend who lived not far from Portsmouth who said I could stay with him. That’s why I went to see the Portsmouth manager, Bob Jackson. I gave him the letter. He said he’d give me a trial to see what I was worth. We went to Bristol Rovers with the reserves. He signed me at half time. He said he’d seen enough.”[v]
1948-49
Delapenha made a positive start to his Pompey career, albeit in the second XI. The match reports in the Portsmouth Evening News for his first two outings both appeared under the identical headline “Delapenha Impresses”.[vi] In the second of these games, which saw Pompey Reserves beat Coventry Reserves 5-0 with Delapenha scoring twice, the local paper recorded: “As he walked off the field … Delapenha the 20-year old Jamaican inside right was given a big ovation by the crowd”.[vii]

Despite these encouraging performances for the reserves it would be November 1948 before Delapenha got his chance in the first team. It was with some sense of anticipation that the Portsmouth Evening News announced “Delapenha Gets His First League Game”[viii] The next day, in front of the 44,000 fans crammed into Fratton Park, Delapenha made his debut in a match that saw Pompey and Blackpool play out a 1-1 draw.

Lindy’s performance drew appreciative noises from the local press: “Delapenha was a success on his first appearance in the League side. He had the crowd with him all the time and ought to do well if he keeps cool”.[ix] He kept his place for the next game, a top of the table clash against Derby County. Unfortunately this time his performance was somewhat underwhelming. At the end of the first half Delapenha ran ahead of a square ball played across the opposition’s penalty box. As he missed the chance to net his first senior goal, Derby picked up possession and within a minute had scored at the other end. Portsmouth lost the match 1-0 and Delapenha found himself in the reserves once more. Following the reverse at the Baseball Ground Portsmouth rediscovered their form. They went unbeaten for the rest of the calendar year, winning four games and drawing two, notching up 16 goals in the process. Ultimately their irrepressible strike force would power them to the Division 1 Championship. And Delapenha did not play another game that season.

1949-50

It was nearly a year before Delapenha would play for the first team again and only then because injury had ruled out Pompey regular Duggie Reid. Delapenha made the very most of his opportunity, turning in a dynamic, eye-catching performance as the Blues trounced Middlesbrough 5-1 at Ayresome Park. Sadly it was not to last. Delapenha retained his place in the team but just “[t]wo days later, at Aston Villa, he would suffer serious ankle-ligament damage in a challenge with Villa’s wing-half, Amos Moss.”[x] Years later Delapenha still remembered the horror of that injury:

"It would be hard to describe what my ankle looked like within two hours. It was blue, purple, pink, grey, green – everything. It was three times its normal size. Because of that injury I lost my place in the side, I would have had it for quite a while cos I was playing well, had scored a couple of goals. And you know football clubs, if you’re look as if you’re going to be a problem they won’t keep you all that long, unless you’re a Wilf Mannion or a Stanley Matthews or someone like that”[xi]
By the end of the year a fit-again Delapenha enjoyed a small run in the team, once more at the expense of the injured Reid. He featured in two of Portsmouth’s matches in over the festive period, first the 1-0 victory against Charlton at Fratton Park, and the return fixture against Middlesbrough that ended in a draw.

Delapenha’s first team opportunity continued into the New Year. His third consecutive start came against Norwich City and also brought him his first and only goal for the club. Portsmouth were hot favourites for an FA Cup tie that saw them drawn against a team two divisions beneath them. It was Delapanha who bundled the ball home to score a highly contentious opening goal for a lacklustre Pompey.Yet Norwich were not overawed by the occasion or their opponents and equalised early in the second half to ensure a draw and a replay at Carrow Road with the league champions. 

It should have been a time of celebration for Delapenha, even if the collective performance had been bitterly disappointing. Instead the match report featured in the Portsmouth Evening News the following Monday fails to mention Delapenha's goal-scoring exploits. Rather it lambasts the Pompey team, labelling them as “[u]seless” and cursing their “pattern-weaving”, noting only that the Blues were “credited with a goal that ought not to have been allowed”.[xii]

By mid-January 1950 Delapenha had been relegated to the reserves and did not even merit a mention in the report of the team’s defeat by Millwall Reserves. Duggie Reid, however, reclaiming his place in the first team, had rediscovered his form. Following the 4-0 thrashing of Huddersfield, The Ranger wrote, “I do not remember him playing better than in the last three matches”.[xiii] Delapenha made just one more appearance for the Blues, away to Fulham in April.

Failure?

The question remains as to why Delapenha failed to make more of an impact at Portsmouth. Certainly he suffered terrible luck with injuries, but this is only part of the story. More important is the unfortunate fact that Delapenha's arrival on the south coast coincided with the club assembling their greatest ever side, a team that won back-to-back league titles.

Delapenha was an exciting forward, capable of playing up front as a central striker, as an inside right or out on the wing, but his preferred position was outside-right. This put him in direct competition with Peter Harris, soon to be an England international,[xiv] and a player so gifted that he was regarded as the “[n]atural successor to Stanley Matthews.”[xv]


Harris was a local lad, and a one-club player, making 479 league appearances and scoring 193 goals in the 14 seasons between 1946 and 1960. In the two seasons Delapenha spent at Portsmouth, Peter Harris enjoyed a magnificent run of form. In 1948/49, at the age of just 23, he played 45 games in league and cup, scoring 22 goals. The following season, he again played in 45 games, this time scoring 17 goals.[xvi]

Delapenha could quite have easily slotted into the team in other positions. But here, also, he found himself as understudy to players in rich veins of form. There was little chance, for instance, of dislodging Ike Clarke who scored 31 goals for Pompey between 1948 and 1950.

All five of Lindy’s games in his second season had been in place of Duggie Reid. Yet the Scotman, who had initially struggled to win the support of the Fratton End fans, was firmly established in the Pompey team during those Championship winning years. In all competitions ‘Thunerboots’ scored 17 goals in 29 appearances during the 1948/49 season. The following year he netted 16 times in 27 games.

But mere statistics fail to do either man justice. It was Clarke who scored the decisive goal in the 2-1 victory over Bolton which secured Portsmouth’s first ever League triumph; it was Reid who, a year later, scored a hat-trick against Aston Villa on the last day of the season ensuring that the Blues clinched the Division 1 title on goal difference. These were two of the most iconic Portsmouth players of their time.

Moving On
Ideally it seems that, given the opportunity, Delapenha would have remained in Portsmouth for years to come. But both the player and his manager understood that the lack of first team opportunities were a problem.
“I would have stayed at Portsmouth for a long time because Bob Jackson was very impressed … The second year I was really getting into the game because, you know, Portsmouth were set. They had won the championship the previous year and they had players that were established. They had people like Duggie Reid, Peter Harris and it was hard getting into that side.”
So impressed had the Boro manager David Jack been by Delapenha’s performance against his team at Ayesome Park the previous September that he made enquiries about the forward’s availability:So impressed had the Boro manager David Jack been by Delapenha’s performance against his team at Ayesome Park the previous September that he made enquiries about the forward’s availability:
“Middlesbrough’s manager, David Jack, approached Bob Jackson and asked what had happened to the lad who’d played so well against his team. Jackson explained and Jack made an offer. Jackson agreed to sell on the informal condition that Delapenha be guaranteed first-team football. The deal was completed in April 1950.”[xvii]

The move was completed, almost two years to the day from when Delapenha had signed for Pompey. It was a wise move. He formed a formidable partnership with a young Brian Clough, and scored 93 goals in 270 appearances during the eight seasons he played for the Teessiders. By sheer coincidence Delapenha’s first game for his new club, the opening fixture of the 1950/51 season, was played at Fratton Park. Portsmouth drew 1-1 with Middlesbrough. Lindy didn’t score.

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[i] “Delapenha: First Non-White to Play English Division 1 Football”, Jamaica Gleaner, October 24 1999 [Online].
http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/19991024/sports/s2.html. Accessed 20/8/2013
[ii] Philip MacDougall (2007) Settlers, Visitors and Asylum Seeker: Diversity in Portsmouth Since the Late 18th Century, Portsmouth City Council: Portsmouth, p15
[iii] Mike Neasom, Mick Cooper & Doug Robinson (1984) Pompey: The History of Portsmouth Football Club, Milestone Publications: Horndean, p.248
[iv] Ernest Cashmore (1982) Black Sportsmen, Routledge and Kegan Paul: London, p27
[v] Quoted in Nick Harris (2003) England, Their England: The Definitive Story of Foreign Footballers in the English Game Since 1888, Pitch Publishing: Hove, p60
[vi] Portsmouth Evening News, “Delapenha Impresses”, Monday April 5th, 1948, p3
[vii] Portsmouth Evening News, “Delapenha Impresses”, Monday April 12th, 1948, p3
[viii] Portsmouth Evening News, “Delapenha Gets His First League Game”, Friday 12th November, 1948, p3
[ix] Portsmouth Evening News, “Pompey Attack Still Wants More Snap”, Monday 15th November, 1948, p3
[x] Nick Harris (2003) England, Their England: The Definitive Story of Foreign Footballers in the English Game Since 1888, Pitch Publishing: Hove, p61
[xi] http://inside-left.blogspot.co.uk/2014/05/the-lindy-delapenha-interview.html
[xii] Portsmouth Evening News, “More Thrust Needed At Norwich”, Monday January 9th 1950, p8
[xiii] Portsmouth Evening News, “Constant Shooting Brings Success”, Monday January 25th 1950, p8
[xiv] Harris made his England debut for England v Ireland on 21 September 1949 at Goodison Park
[xv] Portsmouth Evening News, “Pompey Match Winner”, Wednesday 9th February, 1948, p9
[xvi]
http://pompeyrama.com/pompey-fc-players-209-Peter-Harris.html accessed 19/8/2013
[xvii] Nick Harris (2003) England, Their England: The Definitive Story of Foreign Footballers in the English Game Since 1888, Pitch Publishing: Hove, p61

Wednesday, June 17, 2015

Southsea Community Centre

“I bet if we looked on the internet we could find a way to
 disable all of these CCTV cameras.”

You can’t see it now, the site. Huge purple boards enclose the space. I have no idea what will appear there when, eventually, destruction becomes construction. But it was the spot on which Southsea Community Centre once stood.

I first visited Southsea Community Centre in November 1999. It was a cold, although thankfully dry, evening. I stood outside the entrance, leaning awkwardly (not nonchalantly, as I imagined at the time) over the railings, picking at the flaky red paint. The previous night I had protested in Guildhall Square against the WTO. Not that I knew particularly what it was. Tonight I had come to Southsea Community Centre to discuss the situation in Chechnya. Not that I knew particularly what that was about either.

The meeting started at 8pm. My plan, if you could call it that, was relatively simple: arrive late, go in, get out, have a think about it. Now I stood outside, not as the poster-boy of indecisiveness, but employing the tried and tested tactic of the shy. Fashionably late meant that I wouldn’t have to talk to anyone. Little did I realise that turning up ten minutes after the publicised start of the meeting would make me ten minutes early. A woman, short and forthright, approached me and said, “I bet if we looked on the internet we would find a way to disable all of these CCTV cameras.” I had no idea what she was on about. I was totally hooked.

For the next fifteen years Southsea Community Centre became my home from home, the place where I would spend one, two or occasionally three evenings every week.

I walked past the site a little while ago, before the purple walls had been erected. The building had been reduced to rubble, a littering of bricks and beams and dust. Surveying it from the outside it was smaller than I realised. When I had been on the inside it had seemed to expand in all directions, although I had never seen more than a few of its rooms: there was a café and a sports hall, an office and spaces dedicated to housing folding tables and uncomfortable chairs. The walls carried boards, of both the white and the pin varieties, which in turn carried inked acronyms, indecipherable to those but the initiated. There was also an upstairs - a land seldom explored – which held a certain musty mystique. Rarely had I ever visited the upper levels; fifteen years after my first visit I only vaguely knew the layout, how it all fitted together, how the top and the bottom fitted together.

Occasionally I catch myself wishing that Southsea Community Centre was still there. And then I think about how strange that is. As the years passed I went less and less; a number of times I stopped going all together, even if I was still glad that it was there. By the end I hated that place, detested it. I still hate that place, even now, two years since I last went in. But sometimes I miss the familiarity, the certainty.

New buildings have appeared elsewhere: bright, shiny places, promising more room than before in which to stretch one’s limbs and mind. I just can’t quite convince myself that I want to go inside.